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In POSEIDON study, a treatment-naive patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), tremelimumab (anti-CTLA-4 antibody) plus durvalumab (anti-PD-L1 antibody) and platinum-based chemotherapy demonstrated a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in median Overall Survival (OS) [14 months vs 11.7 months] and median Progression Free...

In this Phase III study (CHOICE-01), patients with treatment-naive, advanced NSCLC with EGFR/ALK mutations, treatment with toripalimab (a humanized IgG4K monoclonal antibody specific for human PD-1) in combination with chemotherapy showed significantly better PFS (median PFS 13.1 v 5.5 months). This study supports the use...

Indoleamine 2,3- dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a cytosolic heme-containing enzyme that functions to catalyze tryptophan (Trp) degradation and kynurenine (Kyn) production, and the Trp:Kyn ratio reflects IDO1 activity. Tobacco carcinogens upregulate IDO1. Clinically, smoker patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) exhibited high IDO1 levels and...